Articles on Medical Diseases and Conditions

Entries Tagged ‘Liver Tract Tests’

Extrahepatic Biliary Tract

The major subdivisions of the biliary tract are the intrahepatic bile ducts, the common bile duct, and the gallbladder. The major diseases of the extrahepatic biliary system are gallbladder inflammation (cholecystitis, acute or chronic), gallbladder stones, and obstruction to the common bile duct by stones or tumor. Obstruction to intrahepatic bile channels can occur as […]

Reye’s Syndrome

Reye’s syndrome usually begins a few days after onset of a viral illness, most often one of the influenza viruses or varicella. The disease predominantly affects children and young adolescents, with a peak incidence between ages 5 and 15 years. Onset of the disease is manifested by symptoms of encephalitis (e.g., confusion, lethargy, or aggressive […]

Fatty Liver

Fatty liver is a common cause of hepatomegaly of unknown etiology. In uncomplicated fatty liver, function tests are variable. There may be no abnormality at all. ALP levels in one series were elevated in nearly 48% of patients but usually were less than twice normal. An elevated AST level is found in 40% of patients, […]

Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

Primary biliary cirrhosis is an uncommon type of biliary obstruction that should be briefly mentioned. It occurs predominantly in young or middle-aged women and typically is a slow process. On liver biopsy there is inflammation and destruction of small bile ducts within liver portal areas. Clinically there is pruritus with or without mild jaundice. Steatorrhea […]

Biliary Obstruction

Obstruction may be complete or incomplete, extrahepatic or intrahepatic. Extrahepatic obstruction is most often produced by gallstones in the common bile duct or by carcinoma of the head of the pancreas. Intrahepatic obstruction is most often found in the obstructive phase of acute hepatocellular damage, as seen in “active” alcoholic cirrhosis, hepatitis virus hepatitis, in […]

Acute Hepatitis Virus Hepatitis

Hepatitis virus B will be used as a model here. After an incubation period, acute viral hepatitis most often begins with some combination of GI tract symptoms, fever, chills, and malaise, lasting 4-7 days. During this phase there is no clinical jaundice. Leukopenia with a relative lymphocytosis is common, and there may be a few […]

Liver Biopsy

This procedure has been greatly simplified, and its morbidity and mortality markedly reduced, by the introduction of small-caliber biopsy needles such as the Menghini. Nevertheless, there is a small but definite risk. Relative contraindications to biopsy include a PT in the anticoagulant range or a platelet count less than 50,000/mm3. Liver biopsy is especially useful […]

Computerized Tomography and Ultrasound

Ultrasound has been reported to detect metastatic liver tumor in approximately 85%-90% of patients (literature range, 63%-96%, with some of the lower figures being earlier ones). Computerized tomography (CT) has a sensitivity of 90%-95%. Radionuclide scans detect a few more patients with diffuse liver abnormality than CT or ultrasound. However, CT and ultrasound can differentiate […]

Radionuclide Liver Scan

If a radioactive colloidal preparation is injected intravenously, it is picked up by the reticuloendothelial system. The Kupffer cells of the liver take up most of the radioactive material in normal circumstances, with a small amount being deposited in the spleen and bone marrow. If a sensitive radioactive counting device is placed over the liver, […]

Alpha Fetoprotein Test (AFP)

Fetal liver produces an alpha-1 globulin called “alpha fetoprotein” (AFP), which becomes the dominant fetal serum protein in the first trimester, reaching a peak at 12 weeks, then declining to 1% of the peak at birth. By age 1 year, a much greater decrease has occurred. Primary liver cell carcinomas (hepatomas) were found to produce […]