1. Chronic diffuse bilateral kidney disease or bilateral severe kidney damage (e.g., chronic glomerulonephritis or bilateral chronic pyelonephritis)
2. Acute tubular necrosis (glomerular or tubular injury [or both] due to hypotension or shock with renal shutdown, traumatic or nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis, transfusion or allergic reactions, certain poisons, and precipitation of uric acid or sulfa crystals in renal tubules)
3. Severe acute glomerular damage (e.g., AGN)