1. Traumatic shock (head injuries; postsurgical hypotension)
2. Hemorrhagic shock (varices, ulcer, postpartum hemorrhage, etc.)
3. Severe dehydration or electrolyte loss (severe vomiting, diarrhea, diabetic acidosis, Addison’s disease)
4. Acute cardiac decompensation (especially after extensive myocardial infarction)
5. Overwhelming infections or toxemia
6. Excess intake of proteins or extensive protein breakdown (usually other factors are also involved, such as the normally subclinical functional loss from aging)