Articles on Medical Diseases and Conditions

Entries Tagged ‘WBC’

Metastatic Carcinoma to Bone

About 27% of all cancer patients have some metastases at autopsy. Any carcinoma, lymphoma, or sarcoma may metastasize to bone, although those primary in certain organs do so much more frequently than others. Prostate, breast, lung, kidney, and thyroid are the most common carcinomas. Once in bone they may cause local destruction that is manifested […]

Granulocytes (Neutrophils)

WBC transfusions are being used for treatment of infections not responding to antibiotics in patients with severe leukopenia due to acute leukemia or bone marrow depression. The AABB recommends 500 granulocytes/mm3 (or per microliter) as the cutoff point defining severe leukopenia. Clinical improvement has been reported in some of these patients but not all. Most […]

White Blood Cell Antigens

The RBC ABO surface antigens are found in most tissues except the central nervous system (CNS). Some of the other RBC antigens, such as the P system, may occur in some locations outside the RBCs. White blood cells also possess a complex antigen group that is found in other tissues; more specifically, in nucleated cells. […]

Leukemoid Reaction

Leukemoid reaction is an abnormally marked granulocytic response to some bone marrow stimulus, most commonly infection. Leukemoid reaction is basically the same process as an ordinary leukocytosis except in the degree of response. The expected peripheral blood WBC count response is even more marked than usual and may reach the 50,000-100,000/mm3 (50-100 x 109/L) range […]

Leukemia, Lymphomas, and Myeloproliferative Syndromes

A consideration of the origin and maturation sequence of white blood cells (WBCs) is helpful in understanding the classification and behavior of the leukemias and their close relatives, the malignant lymphomas. Most authorities agree that the basic cell of origin is the fixed tissue reticulum cell. Fig. 7-1 shows the normal WBC development sequence. In […]

Neonatal Leukocytosis

At birth, there is a leukocytosis of 18,000-22,000/ mm3 (18-22 Ч 109/L) for the first 1-3 days. This drops sharply at 3-4 days to levels between 8,000 and 16,000/mm3. At roughly 6 months, approximately adult levels are reached, although the upper limit of normal is more flexible. Although the postnatal period is associated with neutrophilia, […]

White Blood Cell Maturation Sequence

Normal WBC maturation sequence begins with the blast form, derived from hematopoietic stem cells that, in turn, are thought to be derived from tissue reticulum cells (Fig. 6-1). In the myelocytic (granulocytic or neutrophilic) series, the blast is characterized by a large nucleus with delicate very uniform-appearing light-staining chromatin and with one or more nucleoli. […]

White Blood Cells

White blood cells (WBCs, leukocytes) form the first line of defense of the body against invading microorganisms. Neutrophils and monocytes respond by phagocytosis; lymphocytes and plasma cells primarily produce antibodies. In addition to a nonspecific response to bacterial or viral infection, there are alterations in the normal leukocyte blood picture that may provide diagnostic clues […]