Articles on Medical Diseases and Conditions

Entries Tagged ‘RBC’

Metastatic Carcinoma to Bone

About 27% of all cancer patients have some metastases at autopsy. Any carcinoma, lymphoma, or sarcoma may metastasize to bone, although those primary in certain organs do so much more frequently than others. Prostate, breast, lung, kidney, and thyroid are the most common carcinomas. Once in bone they may cause local destruction that is manifested […]


The appearance of the specimen is usually reported only if it is abnormal. Red: Blood; porphyria; occasionally urates, phenolphthalein, or dihydroxyanthraquinone (Dorbane) (laxative use) Brown: Blood (acid hematin); alkaptonuria (urine turns brownish on standing); melanin (may be brown and turn black on standing) Dark orange: Bile, pyridium (a urinary tract disinfectant) pH Normal urine pH […]

Red Blood Cell Substitutes

Attempts have been made to find an RBC substitute that will not require crossmatching, can be stored conveniently for long periods of time, can be excreted or metabolized in a reasonable period of time, is relatively nontoxic, and can provide an adequate delivery of oxygen to body tissues and return carbon dioxide to the lungs. […]

Antibody Detection Methods

There are two methods of detecting and characterizing antibodies: (1) the direct Coombs’ test and (2) a group of procedures that try to determine if an antibody is present, and if present, attempt to identify the antibody by showing what the antibody will do in various controlled conditions. Direct Coombs’ test To prepare reagents for […]


Polycythemia is an increase in the total blood RBCs over the upper limit of the reference range. This usually entails a concurrent increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit values. Since various studies disagree somewhat on the values that should be considered the upper limits of normal, partially arbitrary criteria are used to define polycythemia. A hemoglobin […]

Leukemoid Reaction

Leukemoid reaction is an abnormally marked granulocytic response to some bone marrow stimulus, most commonly infection. Leukemoid reaction is basically the same process as an ordinary leukocytosis except in the degree of response. The expected peripheral blood WBC count response is even more marked than usual and may reach the 50,000-100,000/mm3 (50-100 x 109/L) range […]

Hemolytic Anemias Due to Extracorpuscular Agents

Anemias due to isoagglutinins (isoantibodies) These anemias are hemolytic reactions caused by antibodies within the various blood group systems. The classification, symptomatology, and diagnostic procedures necessary for detection of such reactions and identification of the etiology are discussed in Chapter 9 and Chapter 11. Anemias due to autoagglutinins (autoantibodies) Autoagglutinins are antibodies produced by an […]

Laboratory Tests in Hemolytic Anemias

Certain laboratory tests are extremely helpful in suggesting or demonstrating the presence of hemolytic anemia. Which tests give abnormal results, and to what degree, depends on the severity of the hemolytic process and possibly on its duration. Reticulocyte count. Reticulocyte counts are nearly always elevated in moderate or severe active hemolytic anemia, with the degree […]

Anemia Associated With Systemic Disease

As noted in Chapter 3, anemia associated with various chronic diseases is usually normocytic and either normochromic or hypochromic. The serum iron and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) are typically both decreased. In 100 consecutive patients in our hospital who had chronic disease and red cell or iron-related biochemical abnormalities, 68 had anemia with normal mean […]

Hypoplastic Marrow

Anemia due to inadequate erythropoiesis without factor deficiency may be classified in several ways. One system is based on the mechanism involved, including (1) marrow failure to incorporate adequate supplies of hematopoietic raw materials (e.g., iron) into red blood cell (RBC) precursors, (2) failure to release mature RBCs from the marrow, or (3) destruction of […]