Articles on Medical Diseases and Conditions

Entries Tagged ‘Hyperthyroidism’

Confirmatory Tests for Hyperthyroidism

The existence of deceptive laboratory hyperthyroidism with the various forms of pseudo toxicosis accentuates the need for reliable confirmatory tests. This is especially true when the patient has severe non thyroidal illness and symptoms such as atrial fibrillation that may be due to thyrotoxicosis. At present, the two most useful confirmatory procedures for hyperthyroidism are […]

Deceptive (Misleading) Test Patterns of Laboratory Hyperthyroidism

Each of the three categories of true laboratory thyrotoxicosis has a counterpart in which the apparent pattern does not reflect true thyroid hormone status. I would like to call the resulting test patterns “deceptive laboratory hyperthyroidism.” These patterns are misleading because of non thyroidal alteration of one or both thyroid hormone levels. Deceptive laboratory hyperthyroidism […]

Laboratory Test Patterns in Hyperthyroidism

The diagnosis of thyroid disease now depends as much on laboratory results as it does on clinical findings. One might therefore use the term “laboratory hyperthyroidism” when considering the spectrum of test results in thyrotoxicosis in the same manner that one employs the term “clinical hyperthyroidism” when evaluating patient signs and symptoms. Laboratory diagnosis is […]

Thyroid Function Tests

The classic picture of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism is frequently not complete and may be totally absent. There may be only one noticeable symptom or sign, and even that may be vague or misleading or suggestive of some other disease. The physician must turn to the laboratory to confirm or exclude the diagnosis. There is a […]

Signs and Symptoms of Thyroid Disease

Many persons have at least one sign or symptom that could suggest thyroid disease. Unfortunately, most of these signs and symptoms are not specific for thyroid dysfunction. Enumeration of the classic signs and symptoms of thyroid disease is the best way to emphasize these facts. Hyperthyroidism Thyrotoxicosis from excess secretion of thyroid hormone is usually […]

Primary Hyperparathyroidism (PHPT)

PHPT is caused by overproduction or inappropriate production of PTH by the parathyroid gland. The most common cause is a single adenoma. The incidence of parathyroid carcinoma is listed in reviews as 2%-3%, although the actual percentage is probably less. About 15% (possibly more) of cases are due to parathyroid hyperplasia, which involves more than […]

Urinalysis in Miscellaneous Diseases

Fever. Fever is the most common cause of proteinuria (up to 75% of febrile patients). If severe, it may be associated with an increase in hyaline casts (etiology unknown, possibly dehydration). Cystitis-urethritis. Cystitis and urethritis are lower urinary tract infections, often hard to differentiate from renal infection. Clumping of WBCs is suggestive of pyelonephritis but […]