Articles on Medical Diseases and Conditions

Entries Tagged ‘CSF’

Lead Encephalopathy

Lead poisoning is discussed elsewhere. Lead encephalopathy occurs mainly in children (adults are more likely to develop peripheral neuropathy), and it is more common in acute than in chronic poisoning. Clinical signs and symptoms include visual disturbances, delirium, convulsions, severe headaches, hypertension, and sometimes papilledema. CSF usually displays increased pressure. The cell count varies from […]

Intracerebral Hemorrhage

CSF findings depend on how close the hematoma is to the subarachnoid space. If penetration to the brain surface occurs, the CSF resembles that of subarachnoid hemorrhage; if situated relatively far from the brain surface, the CSF will be relatively normal. About 20% (literature range, 15%-25%) of cases are said to have clear CSF; the […]

Subdural Hematoma

The classic subdural hematoma develops after trauma, but in one series 20% did not have a history of trauma. In that same series, 60% of patients were alcoholics, 30% of patients had no lateralizing signs, and one third of the patients had multiple hematomas (with 21% having bilateral subdural hematomas and 14% having additional hematomas […]

Brain Tumor

In primary cerebral cortex brain tumor, the CSF usually is clear and colorless, although xanthochromia may be present. Spinal fluid pressure is elevated in 70% of patients. Seventy percent show increased protein levels, with about one half of these more than 100 mg/100 ml (1.0 g/L). CSF glucose levels are normal. The majority (70%) of […]

Cerebrospinal Fluid Examination and Neurologic Disorders

Pressure Reference values for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure are 100-200 mm H2O. Elevations are due to increased intracranial pressure. The two most common causes of elevated CSF pressure are meningitis and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Brain tumor and brain abscess will cause increased intracranial pressure in most cases but only after a variable period of days or […]

Creutzfeldt-Jacob (C-J) Disease

This disease is also known as spongiform encephalopathy (describing the typical microscopic changes in affected brain tissue). It is transmitted by a protein agent known as a prion (proteinaceous infectious agent) that resembles one of the genes in structure. About 90% of cases are sporadic and 5%-15% are hereditary with autosomal dominant transmission. In the […]


Human disease from rabies virus infection is very uncommon in the United States. The number of human cases in the United States is usually less than five per year, and only nine were reported from 1980 to 1987. However, there are always questions about the disease, and several thousand cases of animal rabies are confirmed […]