Articles on Medical Diseases and Conditions

Entries Tagged ‘cancer’

Miscellaneous Cancer Tests

Serum lactic dehydrogenase. Serum LDH levels are sometimes elevated in extensive carcinomatosis, often without any obvious reason. This is especially true in lymphoma, where it may be abnormal in up to 50% cases. However, LDH levels can be elevated in many conditions, which considerably lessens its usefulness in cancer diagnosis. Carcinoma antigen 19-9. CA 19-9 […]

Effusions and Tests for Cancer

In general, when an effusion occurs, the problem is differentiation among neoplastic, infectious, and fluid leakage etiologies. Effusions due to neoplasms or infection are frequently termed exudates and those due to hydrostatic leakage from vessels are called transudates. Several criteria have been proposed to separate transudates and exudates and to differentiate among the three major […]


Cancer antigen 125. The cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) test uses an antibody against antigen from tissue culture of an ovarian tumor cell line. Various published evaluations report sensitivity of about 75%–80% in patients with ovarian carcinoma. There is also an appreciable incidence of elevated values in nonovarian malignancies and in certain benign conditions (see […]

Flow Cytometry in Cancer

FCM has until recently been predominantly used to phenotype leukemias and lymphomas and to aid in prognosis of nonhematologic tumors. Nonhematologic tumors In nonhematologic tumors, predominately aneuploid neoplasms (especially if the S-phase value is increased) generally are more aggressive and have shorter survival time than tumors that are predominantly diploid and have normal S-phase values. […]

Other Conditions Associated with Arthritis

Arthritis and arthralgia may be present in 4%-23% of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. One report indicates that many more have radiologic abnormalities of erosive arthritis but have no symptoms. About 50% of patients with hemochromatosis and about 25% of patients with chronic active hepatitis develop arthritis or arthralgias; up to 40% of patients with […]