Articles on Medical Diseases and Conditions

Entries Tagged ‘Appearance’

Cerebrospinal Fluid Examination and Neurologic Disorders

Pressure Reference values for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure are 100-200 mm H2O. Elevations are due to increased intracranial pressure. The two most common causes of elevated CSF pressure are meningitis and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Brain tumor and brain abscess will cause increased intracranial pressure in most cases but only after a variable period of days or […]


Rubella (German measles) is a very common infection of childhood, although primary infection can occur in adults. The major clinical importance of rubella is maternal infection during pregnancy, which may produce the congenital rubella syndrome in the fetus. The congenital rubella syndrome includes one or more of the following: congenital heart disease, cataracts, deafness, and […]


The appearance of the specimen is usually reported only if it is abnormal. Red: Blood; porphyria; occasionally urates, phenolphthalein, or dihydroxyanthraquinone (Dorbane) (laxative use) Brown: Blood (acid hematin); alkaptonuria (urine turns brownish on standing); melanin (may be brown and turn black on standing) Dark orange: Bile, pyridium (a urinary tract disinfectant) pH Normal urine pH […]