Articles on Medical Diseases and Conditions

Entries for December, 2009

Theophylline (Aminophylline)

Theophylline is used primarily as a bronchodilating agent for therapy of asthma. Over the therapeutic range there is a reasonably linear correlation between dosage and therapeutic effect. The drug is administered intravenously and orally. Oral medication is available in regular (noncoated or liquid) and slow-release (SR) forms. SR forms are available in twice-daily, and even […]

Antiarrythymic Drugs

There is a large and ever-growing list of these medications, too many to include here. TDM data for some members of this group are summarized in Table 37-25. Several have been selected for more detailed discussion here. Procainamide. Procainamide is used to control certain ventricular arrhythmias and can be given orally or intravenously. Only about […]

Psychiatric Medications

Lithium carbonate. Lithium is used for control of the manic phase of manic-depressive psychiatric illness. Peak levels are reached in 1-3 hours, and plasma half-life (in young adults) is about 24 hours (range, 8-35 hours). Time to steady state is about 5 days (range, 2-7 days). Most excretion is through the kidneys, where there is […]

Selected Drugs and Drug Groups Anticonvulsants

Most epileptics can be controlled with phenytoin (Dilantin), primidone (Mysoline), phenobarbital, or other agents. Frequently drug combinations are required. Therapy is usually a long-term project. When toxicity develops, many of these therapeutic agents produce symptoms that could also be caused by central nervous system (CNS) disease, such as confusion, somnolence, and various changes in mental […]

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM)

Various studies have shown that therapy guided by drug blood levels (therapeutic drug monitoring, TDM) has a considerably better chance of achieving therapeutic effect and preventing toxicity than therapy using empiric drug dosage. TDM can be helpful in a variety of circumstances, as can be seen in the following discussion. Новости SEO – Why […]

Other Congenital Diseases

There are a large number of congenital and genetic disorders, too many to include all in this book. If such a condition is suspected, in general the best procedure is to refer the patient or family to a university center that has an active genetics diagnosis program. If the state government health department has a […]


In porphyric diseases, the main similarity is the abnormal secretion of substances that are precursors of the porphyrin compound heme (of hemoglobin). The known pathways of porphyrin synthesis begin with glycine and succinate, which are combined to eventually form a compound known as d-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). This goes on to produce a substance known as […]

Enzyme Deficiency Diseases

Congenital cholinesterase deficiency (succinylcholine apnea). Cholinesterase is an enzyme best known for its role in regulation of nerve impulse transmission via breakdown of acetylcholine at the nerve synapse and neuromuscular junction. There are two categories of cholinesterase: acetylcholinesterase (“true cholinesterase”), found in RBCs and nerve tissue; and serum cholinesterase (“pseudocholinesterase”). Cholinesterase deficiency became important when […]

Abnormalities of Glandular Secretion

Cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis, or fibrocystic disease of the pancreas) is the most common eventually lethal autosomal recessive inherited disorder in Europeans (estimated gene frequency of 1 in 2,000 live births). Incidence in African Americans is 2% of that in Europeans; it is rare in Asians. About 90% of homozygotes have symptoms resulting predominately […]

Diseases of Mineral Metabolism

Wilson’s disease (hepatolenticular degeneration). Wilson’s disease is a familial disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. It most often becomes manifest between ages 8 and 30 years; symptoms usually do not develop before age 6 years. About 30%-50% of patients initially develop hepatic symptoms, about 30%-40% begin with neurologic symptoms, and about […]